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        The complete knowledge of denim fabrics that you want to know the most!

        Author:admin Click:350 Date:2023-6-26 8:42:57

        Source: Dr. Spinning Fabrics


        Denim is a clothing that can be worn all year round, so how to distinguish different types of denim (denim fabric): first of all, according to the thickness of denim, it is divided into 4.5 amps, 6 amps, 8 amps, 10 amps, 11 amps, 12 amps, 13.5 amps, 14.5 amps, etc., 4.5 amps is very thin, commonly used as summer women's vests, sleeveless shirts, etc., and 14.5 amps is already very thick, used to make winter men's cotton clothespin cotton. And most of the jeans we often wear range from 8 amps to 12 amps.


        From the types of denim fabrics, it can be divided into plain weave, twill, herringbone pattern, interwoven pattern, bamboo joint, dark pattern, and flocking denim.


        In terms of composition, denim is divided into combed and combed, 100% cotton, stretch (lycra), cotton and linen blend, and tencel.


        At present, the more popular denim varieties at home and abroad are mainly ring yarn denim, warp and weft bamboo denim, super indigo dyed denim, color color, color denim and weft stretch denim and so on.


        Ring yarn denim


        With the development and application of new process equipment such as ring spinning high speed, large roll packaging, fine winding and knotless yarn, the shortcomings of roving spinning yarn such as short length, low production efficiency and many knots have been solved. The replacement of denim yarn with airflow yarn is rapidly changing, and ring yarn is making a comeback. Because ring yarn denim is superior to some properties of airflow yarn, such as feel, drape, tear strength, etc., but also due to people's psychological return to nature, the pursuit of the influence of the original development of denim style, more importantly, the ring yarn denim clothing after grinding processing, the surface will show a hazy bamboo style, which is in line with the personalized needs of today's denim. In addition, the current market is very popular bamboo yarn denim, and ring ingot bamboo can spin shorter and denser bamboo, which also promotes the development momentum of ring denim.


        Bamboo denim


        When the design of bamboo yarn with different yarn sizes, different bamboo thickness (ratio to base yarn), bamboo length and pitch, using single warp or single weft direction and warp and weft bidirectional are equipped with bamboo yarn, and the same number or different numbers of normal yarn for appropriate ratio and arrangement, you can produce a variety of bamboo denim, after clothing washing and processing can form a variety of hazy or clearer stripe style denim, welcomed by consumer personalized demand groups. Early bamboo denim almost all used ring bamboo yarn, because it can spin bamboo yarn with short length, smaller pitch and relatively large density, which is easy to form a denser embellishment effect on the cloth, and is mainly based on warp bamboo. With the development of market consumer demand, warp and weft two-way bamboo denim is currently popular, especially two-way bamboo denim products with weft elasticity, which are very popular in domestic and foreign markets. As long as the organizational structure of some varieties is well designed, a single variety of ring yarn can be used in the warp direction, and an appropriate proportion of bamboo yarn can be used in the weft direction, which can also achieve the effect of bamboo denim in both warp and weft.


        Weft stretch denim


        The use of spandex stretch yarn has developed denim varieties to a new field, which can make denim both close and comfortable, and then matched with bamboo or different colors, so that denim products are more suitable for fashion, personalized consumer demand, so there is great potential for development. At present, most of the elastic denim is weft elasticity, elastic elongation is generally 20% ~ 40%, the size of elastic elongation depends on the tissue design of the fabric, the smaller the tightness of the warp and weft structure on the cloth machine, the greater the elasticity, on the contrary, under the condition of fixed tightness of the warp structure, the greater the tightness of the weft elastic yarn, the smaller the elasticity, the weft tightness reaches a certain extent, and even the loss of elasticity will occur. In addition, the current outstanding problem of stretch denim finished cloth is that the weft shrinkage rate is too large, generally more than 10%, and some even as high as 20%. The unstable cloth width brings great difficulties to the production of clothing, the solution is not to make the elasticity stretch too large in product design, generally take 20% ~ 30%, that is, maintain a certain warp and weft tissue tightness, and take the method of appropriately increasing the tension when pre-shrinking and finishing, so that the cloth has a large shrinkage, so as to obtain the residual shrinkage rate of the finished cloth weft direction Another solution is to heat set the elastic denim after pre-shrinking finishing, so that a more uniform and consistent cloth width and a more stable, lower weft shrinkage can be obtained. Meet the requirements of garment processing and production.


        Special color denim


        Because garments made of super indigo dyed or extra deep indigo dyed denim can obtain a special effect of intense and bright color after grinding and processing, it is widely welcomed by consumers. "Ultra indigo" dyed denim has two major characteristics: the dyeing depth is particularly deep and the color fastness to grinding is particularly good. The former refers to the amount of indigo dye dyed on the yarn per unit weight (generally the dye accounts for % of the yarn dry weight, referred to as the dyeing depth %) is particularly large, for example, the conventional denim warp yarn indigo dyeing depth is 1% ~ 3%, and the "super indigo" dyeing depth needs to reach more than 4%, can be called super indigo or extra deep indigo. The latter means that "ultra-indigo" dyed jeans need to undergo repeated grinding for more than 3 hours, and their color can still reach or exceed the color depth of conventional dyed denim when it is not polished, and its color light is much brighter than conventional dyed denim. For the color fastness of indigo dyed denim, its essence depends on the degree of core penetration of the dye to the yarn, rather than the grinding fastness of the dye itself (the wet grinding fastness of indigo is only level 1), that is, the better the core penetration, the better the color fastness to grinding.


        In the past, the so-called "indigo dyeing rapid washing process" was actually in the yarn dyeing process, deliberately making the indigo dye very light on the fiber penetration, so that when denim clothing grinding processing, the extremely thin layer of dye on the surface of the yarn was ground off, revealing more white yarn core, so that the color quickly lightened, so as to achieve the effect of fading immediately after a short time of grinding. The "super indigo" dyeing process, on the contrary, requires a particularly good degree of dye penetration, so that denim clothing can be polished and processed to obtain a deep and bright color.


        Since the dyeing depth of "super indigo" dyed denim products is more than 60% higher than that of conventional traditional denim dyeing, the indigo concentration of the dyeing solution will also be doubled, even reaching 3~4g/L, and it is possible to obtain a deeper color. In this way, the viscosity of the dye solution increases, the fluidity becomes poor, and the penetration ability of the dye cryptochromate is affected, so that the color fastness of denim is reduced, and the final depth demand for clothing production cannot be reached. Therefore, some companies adopt the design of increasing the dyeing depth again, so that the concentration of indigo of the dyeing solution increases again, and the penetration performance becomes worse, so that the vicious circle is formed back and forth, and it still cannot meet the requirements of "super indigo" color. The higher the concentration of indigo in the dyeing solution, the heavier the red light of the dye, the darker the color, and there is no "super indigo" effect. Therefore, many production plants have or are preparing to modify the dyeing and pulping equipment to solve this problem by increasing the number of dyeing passes. For example, increasing the number of dyeing channels to 8 or even 10 not only increases investment costs, consumption of dyeing materials, increases the difficulty of operation, and increases environmental pollution. A better way to solve this contradiction is to appropriately reduce the dosage of insurance powder or caustic soda, especially the control of the amount of caustic soda, so that the pH value of the dyeing solution is stable between 11~12, the dyeing rate is the highest and the color is stable, and the dyeing tension of the warp yarn is appropriately reduced, so as to obtain a better "super indigo" dyeing effect.


        Color-coded denim with indigo as the base color


        In order to increase the color and color change of indigo denim varieties, various color denim varieties are currently extremely popular. For example, indigo set dyeing sulfide black, indigo sleeve dyeing vulcanized grass green, vulcanic black green, vulcanized blue, etc., to meet the personalized needs of the market. At the same time, denim manufacturers have their own patented new varieties of denim to improve the competitiveness of the market. In this regard, it should be noted that the concentration of the mother liquor should be controlled as much as possible to prevent excessive overflow of the dye solution from causing the waste of dyes and expanding environmental pollution.


        Colored (color) denim


        Mainly bromine indigo (commonly known as emerald blue) denim and vulcanized black denim, as well as the use of sulfur dye color-blocking coffee, emerald green, gray, khaki, sulfide blue denim, and a small amount of naftu dye or reactive dye dye dyeing red, peach, concubine denim, etc., although the production batch is not large, but the market demand is more urgent, often can not meet the need. The main problem is that the color and light are not stable enough, the dyeing attention is also poor, and the garment production plant is not satisfied, which is of course related to the small production batch and too many colors, but it is difficult to produce what color varieties are produced by the dyeing and pulping combined machine, the consumption is large, the cost is high, and the sewage is difficult to treat, etc., which also has a certain impact. The first solution is to minimize the number of color matching when designing, as far as possible to use two color matching, no more than three color matching, or use other more stable dye varieties to replace it, to adapt to the production characteristics of the dyeing and pulping line, to obtain a more stable dyeing effect, the second is a more thorough solution or the use of yarn-dyed factory yarn large-capacity dyeing, slitting and warping production process route to produce color denim is ideal.


        Let's talk about how to sew a denim garment, which is also the key to designing denim clothing:


        Car line: mostly 2 points unilateral double bright line, there are 2 points single bright line, 2 points bilateral double bright line, car line color is generally earth yellow (equal contrast line) There are also color matching lines, pay attention to the cloth color line after washing. Zigzag and other special process lines. Bold hand embroidery thread.


        Ingredients: Denim mostly uses I-buttons, quadruple buttons, bumper nails, corns, leather tags, metal zippers, etc.


        Marks and Marks: Including, main mark, size mark, washing mark, flag mark, side mark, etc.


        Denim due to the shrinkage of denim, so in the denim factory master is the busiest, the general ordinary denim will also have 2%-3% horizontal shrinkage, and stretch denim shrinkage can reach more than 10%, plus each roll of denim is different, so the denim master's version is always endless.


        Generally, there are more casual denim models, and most of these types of models are flat cut, and the key is how the size is determined. And stretch denim (including Lycra) can be in trouble, this cloth is often used as women's slim jackets, close-fitting low-rise jeans, plus more than 10% shrinkage, the fit is always constantly adjusted, and jeans are the most taboo front wave wrinkle, the requirement is to fit closely, and in the past two years, some big brands have launched three-dimensional cutting, similar to the vertical tailoring we learned, adding more pleats at the knees, or one more face, better enhance the freedom of activity of jeans, and the cutting of denim suits can reflect the skill of a patternmaker, Especially with high elasticity, it is difficult to make the sleeve mountain flat, wrinkle-free, and beautiful.


        Let's talk about the decoration process of denim:


        In the past two years, the trend of denim has been different from before, in addition to paying attention to the change design of washing water, but also attaches great importance to the treatment of denim decoration technology:


        raw edges: the jeans are lowered, the trousers are trimmed with scissors and tattered, plus special threads; Add machine embroidery, including the pattern design of computer machine embroidery.


        Hot diamond: This kind of popular in the Russian market, patch embroidery, hand embroidery, bead embroidery, very craft design.


        Glue print: hard feeling, washing water will easily fall off the pattern.


        Laser: burn off all the colors of the cloth, reveal the color of its own cloth, with the effect of rendering denim can also be matched with different fabrics, such as wool, imitation leather, corduroy, thick knitting (wool cloth, sweatshirt), etc.;


        And denim can do more styles, including five bags of jeans, denim shirts, denim jackets, skirts, coats, etc., which is also where your creativity and talent are reflected.


        Common washing methods


        1. General washing is ordinary washing. It's just that the washing we are familiar with on weekdays is changed to mechanized, its water temperature is about 60 ° -90 ° C, add a certain amount of detergent, after about 15 minutes of ordinary washing, the water can be added with softener, so that the fabric is softer, more comfortable, and visually more natural and clean. Usually according to the length of washing time and the amount of chemicals, general washing can be divided into light general washing, general washing, and heavy general washing. Usually light general washing is about 5 minutes, general washing is about 15 minutes, heavy general washing is about 30 minutes, (this time is not accurate), these three washing methods have no obvious boundaries.


        2. Stone washing / stone grinding (STONE WASH) stone washing is to add a certain size of pumice to the washing water, so that the pumice and clothes are polished, and the water level in the grinding tank is carried out at a low water level where the clothes are completely soaked, so that the pumice can be in good contact with the clothes. It can be washed or rinsed before stone grinding, or rinsed after stone grinding. According to the different requirements of customers, yellowstone, white stone, AAA stone, artificial stone, rubber ball, etc. can be used for washing to achieve different washing effects, after washing, the cloth surface presents a gray, old feeling, and the clothes are slightly to severely damaged.


        3, ENZYME WASH enzyme is a kind of cellulase, which can degrade the fiber structure under a certain pH value and temperature, so that the cloth surface can be gently faded, hair removal (produce "peach skin" effect), and get a long-lasting soft effect. STONES CAN BE USED TOGETHER OR INSTEAD OF STONES, AND IF USED WITH STONES, IT IS OFTEN CALLED ENZYMESTONE WASH.


        4, sand wash (SAND WASH) sand washing more alkaline, oxidizing additives, so that the clothes after washing has a certain fading effect and old feeling, if with stone grinding, the surface of the cloth after washing will produce a layer of soft frosty white fluff, and then add some softener, can make the fabric soft and soft after washing, thereby improving the comfort of wearing.


        5, chemical wash (CHEMICAL WASH) chemical washing is mainly through the use of strong alkali additives (NaOH, NaSiO3, etc.) to achieve the purpose of fading, after washing the clothes have a more obvious sense of aging, and then add softener, the clothes will have a soft, plump effect. IF A STONE IS ADDED TO THE CHEMICAL WASH, IT IS CALLED CHEMICAL STONE WASH, WHICH CAN ENHANCE THE FADING AND WEAR EFFECT, SO THAT THE CLOTHES HAVE A STRONG SENSE OF STAGNATION, FOSSIL WASHING SET CHEMICAL WASHING AND STONE WASHING EFFECT IN ONE, AFTER WASHING CAN ACHIEVE A KIND OF DISTRESS AND LINTING EFFECT.


        6, rinse (BLEACH WASH) in order to make the clothes have a white or bright appearance and soft feel, need to rinse the clothes, that is, after ordinary washing water, heat to 60 °C, according to the depth of the bleaching color, add an appropriate amount of bleach (bleaching agent), 7-10 minutes to make the color consistent to the board. During operation, the direction of adding bleaching should be consistent with the steering of the cylinder, so as to avoid local bleaching of the bleach directly on the laundry because it cannot be diluted with water as soon as possible. Before bleaching, the water level in the tank should be slightly higher so that the bleaching water can be diluted. After the laundry is bleached to the plate, the residual bleach in the water is neutralized with large (small) soda (Na2CO3, NaHCO3) to stop the bleaching completely. After waiting for clean water, add detergent, fluorescent brightener, hydrogen peroxide, etc. to the water temperature at 50 °C for the final wash, neutralize the PH value, fluorescent whitening, etc., and finally carry out soft treatment. Rinsing can be divided into oxygen bleaching and chlorine bleaching. Oxygen bleaching is the use of hydrogen peroxide at a certain pH value and temperature to destroy the dye structure, so as to achieve the purpose of fading, whitening, generally the bleaching surface will be slightly red. Chlorine bleaching is the use of oxidation of sodium hypochlorite to destroy the dye structure, so as to achieve the purpose of fading. The fading effect of chlorine bleaching is rough and is mostly used for rinsing indigo denim. AFTER BLEACHING TO THE PLATE, THE RESIDUAL CHLORINE IN THE WATER AND CLOTHING SHOULD BE NEUTRALIZED WITH SEA WAVES TO STOP BLEACHING, AND THEN STONE GRINDING AFTER BLEACHING, WHICH IS CALLED STONE RINSING (BLEACH STONE)


        7. DESTROY WASH After polishing and auxiliary treatment, the garment will be damaged to a certain extent in some parts (bone position, collar angle, etc.), and the clothes will have a more obvious effect of decaying after washing.


        8. Snowflake washing The dry pumice stone is soaked with potassium permanganate solution, and then directly polished with the clothes in a special rotary cylinder, and the potassium permanganate is oxidized off the friction point by sanding the pumice stone, so that the cloth surface is irregularly faded, forming white spots similar to snowflakes. The general process of snowflake washing is as follows: pumice soaking potassium permanganate - pumice and dry grinding of clothes - snowflake effect against the board - take out the clothes and wash off the stone dust on the clothes with clean water in the washing tank - oxalic acid neutralization - washing - softener.


        9) THE MOUSTACHE EFFECT IS WHISKER, BUT WHISKER IS MORE TECHNICAL. CAT WHISKERS ARE A TYPE OF HAND SAND (HAND WIPE, AND HAND BRUSH), WHICH IS JUST GROUND INTO THE SHAPE OF A CAT'S WHISKERS.


        10, SAND BLASTING, ALSO KNOWN AS SPRAY STONE WASH / SAND BLAST, IS TO USE SPECIAL EQUIPMENT (FIGURATIVELY SPEAKING, IT IS AN ELECTRIC LARGE TOOTHBRUSH, BUT IT IS A ROLLER TYPE) TO POLISH ON THE FABRIC, USUALLY WITH AN INFLATABLE MODEL TO MATCH.


        11. THE ESSENTIAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MONKEY WASH AND SAND BLASTING IS THAT THE FORMER IS A CHEMICAL ACTION, WHILE THE LATTER IS A PHYSICAL ACTION. Spraying horse gelding is to spray potassium permanganate solution onto clothing according to design requirements with a spray gun, and a chemical reaction occurs to fade the cloth. The concentration and amount of potassium permanganate are used to control the degree of fading. In terms of effect, the spray horse gelding is evenly faded, and the surface layer has faded, and a strong fade effect can be achieved. Sandblasting, on the other hand, only has fading on the surface layer, and the physical damage to the fibers can be seen.


        12, Pigment wash / pigment dyed wash is also called "single-sided coating / paint dyeing", which means that this washing method is specially designed for clothing dyed by paint, and its function is to consolidate the original bright color and increase the softness of the feel.


        Denim is a clothing that can be worn all year round, so how to distinguish different types of denim (denim fabric): First of all, according to the thickness of denim, it is divided into 4.5 amps, 6 amps, 8 amps, 10 amps, 11 amps, 12 amps, 13.5 amps, 14.5 amps, etc., 4.5 amps is very thin, commonly used as summer women's vests, sleeveless shirts, etc., and 14.5 amps is already very thick, used to make winter men's cotton clothes clip cotton. And most of the jeans we often wear range from 8 amps to 12 amps.


        From the types of denim fabrics, it can be divided into plain weave, twill, herringbone pattern, interwoven pattern, bamboo joint, dark pattern, and flocking denim. In terms of composition, denim is divided into combed and combed, 100% cotton, stretch (lycra), cotton and linen blend, and tencel. At present, the more popular denim varieties at home and abroad are mainly ring yarn denim, warp and weft bamboo denim, super indigo dyed denim, color color, color denim and weft stretch denim and so on.


        Ring yarn denim


        With the development and application of new process equipment such as ring spinning high speed, large roll packaging, fine winding and knotless yarn, the shortcomings of roving spinning yarn such as short length, low production efficiency and many knots have been solved. The replacement of denim yarn with airflow yarn is rapidly changing, and ring yarn is making a comeback. Because ring yarn denim is superior to some properties of airflow yarn, such as feel, drape, tear strength, etc., but also due to people's psychological return to nature, the pursuit of the influence of the original development of denim style, more importantly, the ring yarn denim clothing after grinding processing, the surface will show a hazy bamboo style, which is in line with the personalized needs of today's denim. In addition, the current market is very popular bamboo yarn denim, and ring ingot bamboo can spin shorter and denser bamboo, which also promotes the development momentum of ring denim.


        Bamboo denim


        When the design of bamboo yarn with different yarn sizes, different bamboo thickness (ratio to base yarn), bamboo length and pitch, using single warp or single weft direction and warp and weft bidirectional are equipped with bamboo yarn, and the same number or different numbers of normal yarn for appropriate ratio and arrangement, you can produce a variety of bamboo denim, after clothing washing and processing can form a variety of hazy or clearer stripe style denim, welcomed by consumer personalized demand groups.


        Early bamboo denim almost all used ring bamboo yarn, because it can spin bamboo yarn with short length, smaller pitch and relatively large density, which is easy to form a denser embellishment effect on the cloth, and is mainly based on warp bamboo. With the development of market consumer demand, warp and weft two-way bamboo denim is currently popular, especially two-way bamboo denim products with weft elasticity, which are very popular in domestic and foreign markets. As long as the organizational structure of some varieties is well designed, a single variety of ring yarn can be used in the warp direction, and an appropriate proportion of bamboo yarn can be used in the weft direction, which can also achieve the effect of bamboo denim in both warp and weft.


        Weft stretch denim


        The use of spandex stretch yarn has developed denim varieties to a new field, which can make denim both close and comfortable, and then matched with bamboo or different colors, so that denim products are more suitable for fashion, personalized consumer demand, so there is great potential for development. At present, most of the elastic denim is weft elasticity, elastic elongation is generally 20% ~ 40%, the size of elastic elongation depends on the tissue design of the fabric, the smaller the tightness of the warp and weft structure on the cloth machine, the greater the elasticity, on the contrary, under the condition of fixed tightness of the warp structure, the greater the tightness of the weft elastic yarn, the smaller the elasticity, the weft tightness reaches a certain extent, and even the loss of elasticity will occur.


        In addition, the current outstanding problem of stretch denim finished cloth is that the weft shrinkage rate is too large, generally more than 10%, and some even as high as 20%. The unstable cloth width brings great difficulties to the production of clothing, the solution is not to make the elasticity stretch too large in product design, generally take 20% ~ 30%, that is, maintain a certain warp and weft tissue tightness, and take the method of appropriately increasing the tension when pre-shrinking and finishing, so that the cloth has a large shrinkage, so as to obtain the residual shrinkage rate of the finished cloth weft direction Another solution is to heat set the elastic denim after pre-shrinking finishing, so that a more uniform and consistent cloth width and a more stable, lower weft shrinkage can be obtained. Meet the requirements of garment processing and production.


        Special color denim


        Because garments made of super indigo dyed or extra deep indigo dyed denim can obtain a special effect of intense and bright color after grinding and processing, it is widely welcomed by consumers. "Ultra indigo" dyed denim has two major characteristics: the dyeing depth is particularly deep and the color fastness to grinding is particularly good. The former refers to the amount of indigo dye dyed on the yarn per unit weight (generally the dye accounts for % of the yarn dry weight, referred to as the dyeing depth %) is particularly large, for example, the conventional denim warp yarn indigo dyeing depth is 1% ~ 3%, and the "super indigo" dyeing depth needs to reach more than 4%, can be called super indigo or extra deep indigo.


        The latter means that "ultra-indigo" dyed jeans need to undergo repeated grinding for more than 3 hours, and their color can still reach or exceed the color depth of conventional dyed denim when it is not polished, and its color light is much brighter than conventional dyed denim. For the color fastness of indigo dyed denim, its essence depends on the degree of core penetration of the dye to the yarn, rather than the grinding fastness of the dye itself (the wet grinding fastness of indigo is only level 1), that is, the better the core penetration, the better the color fastness to grinding.


        In the past, the so-called "indigo dyeing rapid washing process" was actually in the yarn dyeing process, deliberately making the indigo dye very light on the fiber penetration, so that when denim clothing grinding processing, the extremely thin layer of dye on the surface of the yarn was ground off, revealing more white yarn core, so that the color quickly lightened, so as to achieve the effect of fading immediately after a short time of grinding. The "super indigo" dyeing process, on the contrary, requires a particularly good degree of dye penetration, so that denim clothing can be polished and processed to obtain a deep and bright color.


        Since the dyeing depth of "super indigo" dyed denim products is more than 60% higher than that of conventional traditional denim dyeing, the indigo concentration of the dyeing solution will also be doubled, even reaching 3~4g/L, and it is possible to obtain a deeper color. In this way, the viscosity of the dye solution increases, the fluidity becomes poor, and the penetration ability of the dye cryptochromate is affected, so that the color fastness of denim is reduced, and the final depth demand for clothing production cannot be reached. Therefore, some companies adopt the design of increasing the dyeing depth again, so that the concentration of indigo of the dyeing solution increases again, and the penetration performance becomes worse, so that the vicious circle is formed back and forth, and it still cannot meet the requirements of "super indigo" color. The higher the concentration of indigo in the dyeing solution, the heavier the red light of the dye, the darker the color, and there is no "super indigo" effect.


        Therefore, many production plants have or are preparing to modify the dyeing and pulping equipment to solve this problem by increasing the number of dyeing passes. For example, increasing the number of dyeing channels to 8 or even 10 not only increases investment costs, consumption of dyeing materials, increases the difficulty of operation, and increases environmental pollution. A better way to solve this contradiction is to appropriately reduce the dosage of insurance powder or caustic soda, especially the control of the amount of caustic soda, so that the pH value of the dyeing solution is stable between 11~12, the dyeing rate is the highest and the color is stable, and the dyeing tension of the warp yarn is appropriately reduced, so as to obtain a better "super indigo" dyeing effect.


        Set color denim


        In order to increase the color and color change of indigo denim varieties, various color denim varieties are currently extremely popular. For example, indigo set dyeing sulfide black, indigo sleeve dyeing vulcanized grass green, vulcanic black green, vulcanized blue, etc., to meet the personalized needs of the market. At the same time, denim manufacturers have their own patented new varieties of denim to improve the competitiveness of the market. In this regard, it should be noted that the concentration of the mother liquor should be controlled as much as possible to prevent excessive overflow of the dye solution from causing the waste of dyes and expanding environmental pollution.


        Colored (color) denim


        Mainly bromine indigo (commonly known as emerald blue) denim and vulcanized black denim, as well as the use of sulfur dye color-blocking coffee, emerald green, gray, khaki, sulfide blue denim, and a small amount of naftu dye or reactive dye dye dyeing red, peach, concubine denim, etc., although the production batch is not large, but the market demand is more urgent, often can not meet the need.


        The main problem is that the color and light are not stable enough, the dyeing attention is also poor, and the garment production plant is not satisfied, which is of course related to the small production batch and too many colors, but it is difficult to produce what color varieties are produced by the dyeing and pulping combined machine, the consumption is large, the cost is high, and the sewage is difficult to treat, etc., which also has a certain impact. The first solution is to minimize the number of color matching when designing, as far as possible to use two color matching, no more than three color matching, or use other more stable dye varieties to replace it, to adapt to the production characteristics of the dyeing and pulping line, to obtain a more stable dyeing effect, the second is a more thorough solution or the use of yarn-dyed factory yarn large-capacity dyeing, slitting and warping production process route to produce color denim is ideal.


        Let's talk about how to sew a denim garment, which is also the key to designing denim clothing:


        Car line: mostly 2 points unilateral double bright line, there are 2 points single bright line, 2 points bilateral double bright line, car line color is generally earth yellow (equal contrast line) There are also color matching lines, pay attention to the cloth color line after washing. Zigzag and other special process lines. Bold hand embroidery thread.


        Ingredients: Denim mostly uses I-buttons, quadruple buttons, bumper nails, corns, leather tags, metal zippers, etc.


        Marks and Marks: Including, main mark, size mark, washing mark, flag mark, side mark, etc.


        Denim due to the shrinkage of denim, so in the denim factory master is the busiest, the general ordinary denim will also have 2%-3% horizontal shrinkage, and stretch denim shrinkage can reach more than 10%, plus each roll of denim is different, so the denim master's version is always endless


        Generally, there are more casual denim models, and most of these types of models are flat cut, and the key is how the size is determined. And stretch denim (including Lycra) can be in trouble, this cloth is often used as women's slim jackets, close-fitting low-rise jeans, plus more than 10% shrinkage, the fit is always constantly adjusted, and jeans are the most taboo front wave wrinkle, the requirement is to fit closely, and in the past two years, some big brands have launched three-dimensional cutting, similar to the vertical tailoring we learned, adding more pleats at the knees, or one more face, better enhance the freedom of activity of jeans, and the cutting of denim suits can reflect the skill of a patternmaker, Especially with high elasticity, it is difficult to make the sleeve mountain flat, wrinkle-free, and beautiful.


        Denim decoration craft


        In the past two years, the trend of denim has been different from before, in addition to paying attention to the change design of washing water, but also attaches great importance to the treatment of denim decoration technology:


        raw edges: the jeans are lowered, the trousers are trimmed with scissors and tattered, plus special threads; Add machine embroidery, including the pattern design of computer machine embroidery.


        Hot diamond: This kind of popular in the Russian market, patch embroidery, hand embroidery, bead embroidery, very craft design.


        Glue print: hard feeling, washing water will easily fall off the pattern.


        Laser: Burn off all the colors of the cloth to reveal the color of the original cloth, with the effect of rendering denim can also be matched with different fabrics, such as wool, imitation leather, corduroy, thick knitting (wool cloth, sweatshirt) and so on.


        And denim can do more styles, including five bags of jeans, denim shirts, denim jackets, skirts, coats, etc., which is also where your creativity and talent are reflected.


        Common washing methods


        1. General washing is ordinary washing.


        It's just that the washing we are familiar with on weekdays is changed to mechanized, its water temperature is about 60 ° -90 ° C, add a certain amount of detergent, after about 15 minutes of ordinary washing, the water can be added with softener, so that the fabric is softer, more comfortable, and visually more natural and clean. Usually according to the length of washing time and the amount of chemicals, general washing can be divided into light general washing, general washing, and heavy general washing. Usually light general washing is about 5 minutes, general washing is about 15 minutes, heavy general washing is about 30 minutes, (this time is not accurate), these three washing methods have no obvious boundaries.


        2. Stone washing / stone washing (STONE WASH) stone washing.


        That is, a certain size of pumice is added to the washing water to polish the pumice stone with the clothes, and the water level in the grinding tank is carried out at a low water level where the clothes are completely soaked, so that the pumice can be in good contact with the clothes. It can be washed or rinsed before stone grinding, or rinsed after stone grinding. According to the different requirements of customers, yellowstone, white stone, AAA stone, artificial stone, rubber ball, etc. can be used for washing to achieve different washing effects, after washing, the cloth surface presents a gray, old feeling, and the clothes are slightly to severely damaged.


        3, ENZYME WASH ENZYME.


        This is a cellulase that can degrade the fiber structure at a certain pH value and temperature, so that the cloth surface can fade more gently, fade the hair (produce a "peach skin" effect), and obtain a long-lasting soft effect. STONES CAN BE USED TOGETHER OR INSTEAD OF STONES, AND IF USED WITH STONES, IT IS OFTEN CALLED ENZYMESTONE WASH.


        4, SAND WASH


        Sand washing with more alkaline, oxidizing additives, so that the clothes after washing has a certain fading effect and old feeling, if with stone grinding, the surface of the cloth after washing will produce a layer of soft frosty white fluff, and then add some softener, can make the fabric after washing, soft, so as to improve the comfort of wearing.


        5, CHEMICAL WASH


        Chemical washing is mainly through the use of strong alkali additives (NaOH, NaSiO3, etc.) to achieve the purpose of fading, after washing the clothes have a more obvious sense of aging, and then add softener, the clothes will have a soft, plump effect. IF A STONE IS ADDED TO THE CHEMICAL WASH, IT IS CALLED CHEMICAL STONE WASH, WHICH CAN ENHANCE THE FADING AND WEAR EFFECT, SO THAT THE CLOTHES HAVE A STRONG SENSE OF STAGNATION, FOSSIL WASHING SET CHEMICAL WASHING AND STONE WASHING EFFECT IN ONE, AFTER WASHING CAN ACHIEVE A KIND OF DISTRESS AND LINTING EFFECT.


        6, RINSE (BLEACH WASH)


        In order to make the clothes have a white or bright appearance and soft feel, the clothes need to be rinsed, that is, after ordinary washing water, warm to 60 °C, according to the depth of the bleaching color, add an appropriate amount of bleach (bleaching agent), 7-10 minutes to make the color consistent to the board. During operation, the direction of adding bleaching should be consistent with the steering of the cylinder, so as to avoid local bleaching of the bleach directly on the laundry because it cannot be diluted with water as soon as possible.


        Before bleaching, the water level in the tank should be slightly higher so that the bleaching water can be diluted. After the laundry is bleached to the plate, the residual bleach in the water is neutralized with large (small) soda (Na2CO3, NaHCO3) to stop the bleaching completely. After waiting for clean water, add detergent, fluorescent brightener, hydrogen peroxide, etc. to the water temperature at 50 °C for the final wash, neutralize the PH value, fluorescent whitening, etc., and finally carry out soft treatment. Rinsing can be divided into oxygen bleaching and chlorine bleaching. Oxygen bleaching is the use of hydrogen peroxide at a certain pH value and temperature to destroy the dye structure, so as to achieve the purpose of fading, whitening, generally the bleaching surface will be slightly red. Chlorine bleaching is the use of oxidation of sodium hypochlorite to destroy the dye structure, so as to achieve the purpose of fading. The fading effect of chlorine bleaching is rough and is mostly used for rinsing indigo denim.


        AFTER BLEACHING TO THE PLATE, THE RESIDUAL CHLORINE IN THE WATER AND CLOTHING SHOULD BE NEUTRALIZED WITH SEA WAVES TO STOP BLEACHING, AND THEN STONE GRINDING AFTER BLEACHING, WHICH IS CALLED STONE RINSING (BLEACH STONE)


        7, DESTROY WASH


        After the garment is polished with pumice and treated with additives, a certain degree of damage will occur in some parts (bone position, collar angle, etc.), and the clothes will have a more obvious effect of decay after washing.


        8. Snowflake washing


        The dry pumice stone is soaked with potassium permanganate solution, and then directly polished with the clothes in a special rotary cylinder, and the potassium permanganate is oxidized off the friction point by polishing the pumice stone, so that the cloth surface is irregularly faded, forming white spots similar to snowflakes.


        The general process of snowflake washing is as follows: pumice soaking potassium permanganate - pumice and dry grinding of clothes - snowflake effect against the board - take out the clothes and wash off the stone dust on the clothes with clean water in the washing tank - oxalic acid neutralization - washing - softener.


        9, CAT WHISKERS (MOUSTACHE EFFECT)


        THAT'S WHISKER, BUT WHISKER'S STATEMENT IS A LITTLE MORE TECHNICAL. CAT WHISKERS ARE A TYPE OF HAND SAND (HAND WIPE, AND HAND BRUSH), WHICH IS JUST GROUND INTO THE SHAPE OF A CAT'S WHISKERS.


        10, SPRAY STONE WASH / SAND BLAST


        It is polished on the fabric with special equipment (figuratively speaking, it is a large electric toothbrush, but it is a roller type), and usually has an inflatable model to match.


        11 MONKEY WASH


        The essential difference between it and sand blasting is that the former is chemical, and the latter is physical. Spraying horse gelding is to spray potassium permanganate solution onto clothing according to design requirements with a spray gun, and a chemical reaction occurs to fade the cloth. The concentration and amount of potassium permanganate are used to control the degree of fading. In terms of effect, the spray horse gelding is evenly faded, and the surface layer has faded, and a strong fade effect can be achieved. Sandblasting, on the other hand, only has fading on the surface layer, and the physical damage to the fibers can be seen.


        12, Pigment wash / pigment dyed wash


        Also called "single-sided coating / paint dyeing", which means that this washing method is specially designed for clothing that has been dyed by paint, and its function is to consolidate the original bright color and increase the softness of the feel.


        Although the word "DENIM" originated in French and was born in the United States, it is only in Japan that you can find the best jeans in the world today.


        In fact, the history of denim in Japan is not long, dating back to the mid-60s of the last century, when jeans slowly became a daily fashion item due to the goods of Hollywood stars.


        So why is Japanese cattle so expensive? What's special?


        Let's analyze from three aspects, where is the good of the Japanese cattle.


        Fabric craftsmanship


        Japanese denim is usually woven from vintage looms – not the rumored Draper loom imported from the United States, but the vintage Toyoda loom.


        Many Japanese factories still use the 1924 version of the Toyoda G loom (which was also introduced as a top-grade loom)


        The output of the old Toyoda loom was very limited – the width of the cloth was only 90 cm, and the weaving process was much slower than that of modern machines.


        In contrast, modern weaving machines are very fast, efficient and precisely controllable. However, the problem is that sophisticated cattle breeders do not need precision, and the differences and imperfections (even small flaws) produced by the weaving process are the most attractive aspects of Japanese cattle, just like handicrafts.


        Compare a beautiful pair of Nissan beef with a pair of commercial finished jeans and you'll immediately notice the difference in texture – most mass-produced jeans have a smooth surface, but Japanese denim is often surprisingly rough.


        Each fabric has a different color and pattern, and these qualities are achieved through countless practices and fine-tuning of the loom, or you can also say, the character of the loom.


        Dyeing process


        Traditional dyeing is also a feature of Japanese denim. Japan has a long history of textile dyeing, dating back hundreds of years to kimono, such as the dyeing technique (which actually originated in my Great China), which has been passed down in Japan today.


        Dyeing is China's ancient printing and dyeing method, this special skill still exists in Hainan Li people, although other ethnic groups in our country also have dyeing, usually first weaving cloth and then dyeing, and the Li dyeing technique is first dyeing and then weaving, not only enriching the level of the pattern, but also hazy and beautiful artistic effects, with high artistic appreciation value


        Many Western brands use the same Cone White Oak on their jeans, but this means that there is no difference between the drops of different denim.


        Japanese denim, on the other hand, is made using a variety of proprietary dyeing processes, which also results in a completely different color drop for each pair of Japanese jeans.


        For example, the "white core" cotton yarn shown in the figure below - the outside is indigo blue, while the core retains the natural white of cotton; Only denim woven with this yarn can provide a natural gradient of color falls. (Japan was the first country to develop and use this cotton yarn)


        The secret to the production of this cotton yarn is the process of rope dyeing – after forming a 500-meter-long rope, the yarn is repeatedly soaked in indigo dye, squeezed and oxidized in air


        Fabric pounds


        Another element of Japanese denim is weight – most of the world's denim over 20 ounces comes from Japan.


        While the number of pounds largely depends on personal preference, the super durability of heavyweight denim has brought it legions of fans. In addition to preventing you from arthritis in cold weather, heavyweight denim tends to be more prone to deeper creases, so its color falls are usually produced faster and more noticeable than low-pound materials.


        However, heavyweight does not mean more durable. Heavier denim puts more stress on the stitches and in some cases causes faster stitch breakage, especially on jeans with cotton stitching (so 20 ounces is a bit too much exaggeration, 12 to 16 ounces is preferable).


        Red ear cloth is not unique to Japan, but in the denim world, Nissan Denim is the prerequisite for the highest standards. What do you think?


        This article is reproduced and the copyright belongs to the original author


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